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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 70-80

Involvement of orexinergic system in psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders: A scoping review


Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Medicine, College of Medicine Almustansiriya University, Baghdad, Iraq

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Hayder M Al-Kuraishy
Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Medicine, College of Medicine Almustansiriya University, P.O. Box: 14132, Baghdad
Iraq
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/bc.bc_42_19

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Orexin is a neuropeptide secreted from lateral hypothalamus and pre-frontal cortex concerned in the wakefulness and excitement. This study aimed to review the possible neurobiological effect of orexin. A diversity of search strategies was adopted and assumed which included electronic database searches of Medline and PubMed using MeSH terms, keywords, and title words during the search. Orexin plays a vital role in activation of learning, memory acquisition, and consolidation through activation of monoaminergic system, which affect cognitive flexibility and cognitive function. Orexin stimulates adrenocorticotropin and corticosteroid secretions via activation of central corticotropin-releasing hormone. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum orexin serum levels are reduced in depression, schizophrenia, and narcolepsy. However, high orexin serum levels are revealed in drug addictions. Regarding neurodegenerative brain diseases, CSF and serum orexin serum levels are reduced Parkinson disease, Alzheimer dementia, Huntington's disease, amyotrphic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis. Orexin antagonist leads to significant reduction of sympathetic over-activity during withdrawal syndrome. As well, orexin antagonist improves sleep pattern. Orexinergic system is involved in the different psychiatric and neurological disorders; therefore, targeting of this system could be possible novel pathway in the management of these disorders. In addition, measurement of CSF and serum orexin levels might predict the relapse and withdrawal of addict patients.


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