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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 254-259

How to remove those bloody collections: Nonsurgical treatment options for chronic subdural hematoma


Department of Neurosurgery, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA

Correspondence Address:
Ho Jun Yun
Wayne State University School of Medicine, 540 E Canfield Street, Detroit, MI 48201
USA
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/bc.bc_73_20

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Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the most prevalent neurosurgical disorders. Patients with CSDH commonly present with altered mental status, focal neurological deficit, and/or headache. The first-line treatment for CSDH is surgical evacuation. Although the surgical procedures for CSDH have been considered relatively “straightforward,” they are not without any risk. The elderly are especially prone to show poor surgical outcomes. To make matters worse, many elderly patients are on anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, increasing the risk of re-bleeding before and after surgery. These complications have led clinicians to search for nonsurgical alternatives. Dexamethasone should be used with caution for selected patients given its side effects. Tranexamic acid may be utilized as an adjunct therapy to surgery, but more randomized clinical trials are needed to evaluate its definitive efficacy. Interesting results of middle meningeal artery embolization (MMAE) have been reported from case studies. However, the risks associated with MMAE, including intracerebral hemorrhage, stroke, and vasospasm, have not been properly studied yet. The clinical benefits of atorvastatin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are uncertain for CSDH. In conclusion, surgical intervention continues to be the first-line treatment while nonsurgical treatment options may be considered an adjunct therapy especially for recurrent hematoma or to reduce the volume of a hematoma.


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