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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 104-110

Effect of remote ischemic preconditioning on cerebral vasospasm, biomarkers of cerebral ischemia, and functional outcomes in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (ERVAS): A randomized controlled pilot trial

1 Department of Neuroanesthesia and Neurocritical Care, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Neurochemistry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Neurosurgery, Aster RV Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
R P Sangeetha
Department of Neuroanesthesia and Neurocritical Care, Third floor, Neurosciences Faculty Block, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru - 560 029, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/bc.bc_13_21

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BACKGROUND: Cerebral vasospasm can complicate aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), contributing to cerebral ischemia. We explored the role of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) in reducing cerebral vasospasm and ischemia and improving outcomes after aSAH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysm undergoing surgical clipping and meeting the trial criteria were randomized to true RIPC (n = 13) (inflating upper extremity blood pressure cuff thrice to 30 mmHg above systolic pressure for 5 min) or sham RIPC (n = 12) (inflating blood pressure cuff thrice to 30 mmHg for 5 min) after ethical approval. A blinded observer assessed outcome measures-cerebral vasospasm and biomarkers of cerebral ischemia. We also evaluated the feasibility and safety of RIPC in aSAH and Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE). RESULTS: Angiographic vasospasm was seen in 9/13 (69%) patients; 1/4 patients (25%) in true RIPC group, and 8/9 patients (89%) in sham RIPC group (P = 0.05). Vasospasm on transcranial Doppler study was diagnosed in 5/25 (20%) patients and 1/13 patients (7.7%) in true RIPC and 4/12 patients (33.3%) in sham RIPC group, (P = 0.16). There was no difference in S100B and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels over various time-points within groups (P = 0.32 and 0.49 for S100B, P = 0.66 and 0.17 for NSE in true and sham groups, respectively) and between groups (P = 0.56 for S100B and P = 0.31 for NSE). Higher GOSE scores were observed with true RIPC (P = 0.009) unlike sham RIPC (P = 0.847) over 6-month follow-up with significant between group difference (P = 0.003). No side effects were seen with RIPC. CONCLUSIONS: RIPC is feasible and safe in patients with aSAH and results in a lower incidence of vasospasm and better functional outcome.

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