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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 139-146

The role of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio as a biomarker to predict stroke: A meta-analysis and systemic review


1 Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
2 Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
3 Department of Neurology, Beijing Fengtai You'anmen Hospital, Beijing, China

Correspondence Address:
Ran Meng
Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, 45, Changchun Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100053
China
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/bc.bc_64_20

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Albuminuria excretion rate, calculated as urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), is used clinically to evaluate albuminuria. There are different attitudes to whether high UACR predicts higher risk of stroke. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between UACR and stroke. Two investigators independently searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register Database, Scopus and Google Scholar from January 1966 through June 2021 were screened. In addition, a manual search was conducted using the bibliographies of original papers and review articles on this topic. Two blinded reviewers abstracted the data independently to a predefined form. Among the 10,939 initially identified studies, 7 studies with 159,302 subjects were finally included. It is demonstrated that UACR predicted an increased risk of stroke using cutoff value of either 0.43 (HR, 2.39; 95% CI: 1.24 - 4.61; P <0.01), 10 mg/g (HR, 1.60; 95% CI: 1.30 - 1.97; P < 0.01) or 30 mg/g (HR, 1.84; 95% CI: 1.49 - 2.28; P < 0.01). The overall analysis confirmed that high UACR was associated with an increased rate of stroke (HR, 1.81; 95% CI: 1.52 - 2.17; P < 0.01). Furthermore, High UACR predicted higher risk of stroke in local inhabitants (HR, 1.67; 95% CI: 1.17 – 2.37; P = 0.04), adults (HR, 2.21; 95% CI: 2.07 – 2.36; P < 0.01) or elderly adults (HR, 1.96; 95% CI: 1.56 – 2.46; P < 0.01). Whereas, high UACR was unable to predict stroke in patients with either T2DM (HR, 2.25; 95% CI: 0.55 – 9.17; P = 0.26) or hypertension (HR, 0.95; 95% CI: 0.28 – 3.22; P = 0.93). Another subgroup analysis revealed that high UACR was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke (HR, 1.60; 95% CI: 1.43 - 1.80; P < 0.01), as well as hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 1.76; 95% CI: 1.22 - 1.45; P < 0.01). In conclusion, UACR is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. UACR may be used as an indicator to predict stroke in non-diabetic and non-hypertensive subjects.


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