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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 277-280

Venous infarction secondary to congestive encephalopathy from central venous occlusive disease in a chronic hemodialysis patient: A case report

Department of Neurosurgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA

Correspondence Address:
Mark A Damante
Department of Neurosurgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 410 W 10th Ave, Columbus 43210, Ohio
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/bc.bc_49_20

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Central venous occlusive disease secondary to chronic hemodialysis catheterization rarely progresses to encephalopathy, cerebral infarction, and/or hemorrhage. A 59-year-old male with 15 years of haemodialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease presented with acutely altered mental status, extensor rigidity with left hemiparesis and equal, but small and nonreactive pupils. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated infarction and cerebral edema. Cranial angiogram through right brachial artery injection revealed right subclavian vein opacification via a patent AV-fistula and retrograde flow to the right internal jugular vein and superior sagittal sinus secondary to occlusion of the brachiocephalic vein. All cerebral and right upper extremity venous drainage occurred via the contralateral venous outflow tract. Internal carotid artery injections revealed significant venous congestion. Despite successful angioplasty with stenting and resolution of venous flow reversal, the patient failed to recover neurologically. The devastating nature of the presented case emphasizes the need for frequent neurologic evaluation of such patients to avoid catastrophic cerebrovascular injury.

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