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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 121-126

Presentation and management of nervous system cavernous malformations in children: A systematic review and case report


Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

Correspondence Address:
Mohit Patel
Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio
USA
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/bc.bc_26_22

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Cerebral cavernous malformations (CMs) are slow-flow vascular lesions that affect up to 0.5% of the pediatric population. These lesions are at risk for hemorrhage, causing seizures, and leading to neurological deficits. Here, we conduct a literature review and then present a report of a supratentorial CM in a 2-year-old patient with no significant past medical history who presented at our institution with 1 month of eye twitching. We performed a literature search of five databases of all articles published before 2020. Our inclusion criteria included cohort and case series of children with mean age under 12 years. Our search yielded 497 unique articles, of which 16 met our inclusion criteria. In our pooled literature analysis, a total of 558 children were included, 8.3% of which had a positive family history and 15.9% had multiple CMs. About 46.1% of the children had seizures, and 88.4% of those who underwent surgery had a total resection. About 85.1% of those with epilepsy were Engel Class 1 postsurgery. Over a mean follow-up of 4.1 years, 3.4% of patients had additional neurological deficits, including paresis and speech deficits. Our analysis of published literature shows surgical intervention should be considered first-line therapy for patients who are symptomatic from CM, present with seizure, and have surgically accessible lesions. Additional work is needed on outcomes and long-term effects of minimally invasive treatments, including radiosurgery and laser ablation, in pediatric populations.


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