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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 192-199

Gender differences in diagnostic tools, medication, time to medication, and nonmotor symptoms in Parkinsonian patients


1 Faculty of Medicine, University of Lund, Lund; Futurum, Academy of Health and Care, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden
2 Futurum, Academy of Health and Care, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping; Departement of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden
3 Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute; Department of Geriatrics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

Correspondence Address:
Örjan Skogar
Faculty of Medicine, University of Lund, Lund
Sweden
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/bc.bc_33_22

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BACKGROUND: Swedish National Quality Registers (NQRs) play an important role in collecting large amounts of diagnosis-specific data, symptoms, and treatments. The subset of data, Parkinson's Registry, has been in use for more than 20 years and represents all counties and hospitals in Sweden where neurological care is provided. OBJECTIVE: To study the differences between genders regarding diagnostic tools, pharmacological interventions, and self-reported symptoms in patients with symptoms originating from basal ganglia disease, either idiopathic or secondary Parkinsonism (PD). METHODS: PD-diagnosed patients from a mix of urban and rural locations were chosen from the NQR and sorted by gender. Self-reported, first-experienced PD-related symptoms defined the debut point of PD. RESULTS: In all, data from 1,217 patients were analyzed: 502 (41%) females/715 (59%) males. A total of 493 imaging investigations were performed, where of 239 (48% females/52% males) had a CT scan performed, 120 (24% females/29% males) had a dopamine transporter scans, and 134 (23% females/26% males) had a magnetic resonance imaging performed (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.19). The average time in years from symptom onset to start of first treatment, and from first to second added treatment was 2;7/2;9 (females) and 5;1/5;2 (males). Nonmotor symptoms were more prominent among males, especially in memory and gastrointestinal domains, including drooling and obstipation. Significantly more sexual problems were reported from males; 26% versus 7% (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Differences between genders were identified in this study. Sexual problems and cognitive decline were more frequent among males. More advanced diagnostic imaging techniques were performed among males. The time point for a second added medication was earlier for males than females.


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