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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2022
Volume 8 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 117-167

Online since Wednesday, September 21, 2022

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PERSPECTIVE  

Perspectives on effect of spleen in ischemic stroke p. 117
Yarong Ding, Donald DeGracia, Xiaokun Geng, Yuchuan Ding
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_53_22  
Despite decades of research, stroke therapies are limited to recanalization therapies that can only be used on <10% of stroke patients; the vast majority of stroke patients cannot be treated by these methods. Even if recanalization is successful, the outcome is often poor due to subsequent reperfusion injury. A major damage mechanism operating in stroke is inflammatory injury due to excessive pro-inflammatory cascades. Many studies have shown that, after stroke, splenic inflammatory cells, including neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages, and lymphocytes, are released and infiltrate the brain, heightening brain inflammation, and exacerbating ischemia/reperfusion injury. Clinical studies have observed spleen contraction in acute stroke patients where functional outcome improved with the gradual recovery of spleen volume. These observations are supported by stroke animal studies that have used splenectomy- or radiation-induced inhibition of spleen function to show spleen volume decrease during the acute phase of middle cerebral artery occlusion, and transfer of splenocytes to stroke-injured brain areas. Thus, activation and release of splenic cells are upstream of excessive brain inflammation in stroke. The development of reversible means of regulating splenic activity offers a therapeutic target and potential clinical treatment for decreasing brain inflammation and improving stroke outcomes.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Presentation and management of nervous system cavernous malformations in children: A systematic review and case report p. 121
Uma V Mahajan, Mohit Patel, Jonathan Pace, Brian D Rothstein
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_26_22  
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CMs) are slow-flow vascular lesions that affect up to 0.5% of the pediatric population. These lesions are at risk for hemorrhage, causing seizures, and leading to neurological deficits. Here, we conduct a literature review and then present a report of a supratentorial CM in a 2-year-old patient with no significant past medical history who presented at our institution with 1 month of eye twitching. We performed a literature search of five databases of all articles published before 2020. Our inclusion criteria included cohort and case series of children with mean age under 12 years. Our search yielded 497 unique articles, of which 16 met our inclusion criteria. In our pooled literature analysis, a total of 558 children were included, 8.3% of which had a positive family history and 15.9% had multiple CMs. About 46.1% of the children had seizures, and 88.4% of those who underwent surgery had a total resection. About 85.1% of those with epilepsy were Engel Class 1 postsurgery. Over a mean follow-up of 4.1 years, 3.4% of patients had additional neurological deficits, including paresis and speech deficits. Our analysis of published literature shows surgical intervention should be considered first-line therapy for patients who are symptomatic from CM, present with seizure, and have surgically accessible lesions. Additional work is needed on outcomes and long-term effects of minimally invasive treatments, including radiosurgery and laser ablation, in pediatric populations.
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Carotid atherosclerotic disease: A systematic review of pathogenesis and management p. 127
Shyamal C Bir, Roger E Kelley
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_36_22  
Carotid stenosis is an important contributor to ischemic stroke risk with resultant significant impact on neurological disability and death in adults and with worldwide implications. Management of carotid stenosis is impacted by whether there are associated symptoms along with the degree of stenosis. Understanding of the pathogenesis of carotid atherosclerosis or stenosis is important in management of carotid stenosis. Atherosclerotic plaque formation is a chronic insidious process with a number of potential contributors to the formation of such a plaque. The definition of atherosclerosis is not simply limited to abnormal deposition of lipid but also includes a chronic, complex, inflammatory process. Molecularly, in atherosclerosis, there is decreasing nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, activity and/or expression of endothelial NO synthase, or increasing degradation of NO secondary to enhanced superoxide production. These above changes cause endothelial dysfunction leading to formation of foam cell followed by formation on lipid plaque. After lipid plaque formation, stable or unstable atherosclerotic plaque is formed depending on the calcium deposition over the lipid plaque. It continues to be clearly established that carotid intervention for symptomatic high-grade carotid stenosis is best managed with intervention either by carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting. However, asymptomatic carotid stenosis is the subject of considerable controversy in terms of optimal management. This review of carotid atherosclerosis is an attempt to incorporate the information provided by more recent studies on pathogenesis and management which may help in the decision-making process for optimal management for protection against stroke.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

The weekend effect on mechanical thrombectomy: A nationwide analysis before and after the pivotal 2015 trials p. 137
Blake E S Taylor, Smit Patel, Patrick Hilden, Fadar Oliver Otite, Kiwon Lee, Gaurav Gupta, Priyank Khandelwal
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_23_22  
OBJECTIVES: As hospitals rapidly implement mechanical thrombectomy (MT) into stroke protocols following the pivotal trials in 2015, access to and outcomes from MT may be poorer for weekend-admitted patients. We sought to investigate whether a “weekend effect” influences MT outcomes nationally. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified stroke patients from 2010–2014 (pre-trials) to 2015–2017 (posttrials) using the Nationwide Readmissions Database. On multivariate analyses, we determined factors independently associated with receiving MT. Among MT patients, we then determined whether weekend admission was independently associated with inpatient mortality and unfavorable discharge. RESULTS: We identified 2,121,462 patients from 2010 to 2014, of whom 1.11% of weekday-admitted and 1.08% of weekend-admitted patients underwent MT. Of the 1,286,501 patients identified from 2015 to 2017, MT was performed in 2.82% and 2.91%, respectively. In the earlier cohort, weekend admission was independently associated with reduced odds of MT (odds ratio [OR] = 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89–0.95, P < 0.0001), although this was not statistically significant in the later cohort. During both periods, age >80 years was independently associated with a reduced likelihood of receiving MT, and status as a teaching or large bed-size hospital was associated with a greater likelihood. Weekend admission was independently associated with unfavorable discharge only in the 2015–2017 cohort (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02–1.22, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: While nationwide access to MT has improved for weekend-admitted patients, the elderly and those at smaller, nonteaching hospitals remain underserved. Although we found no effect of weekend admission on inpatient mortality, since the major shift in practice, an emerging “weekend effect” may influence discharge outcomes. Data suggest that some hospitals are being challenged to provide this new standard of care efficiently and equitably.
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Can mental practice adjunct in the recovery of motor function in the upper limbs after stroke? A systematic review and meta-analysis p. 146
Danielle Aprigio, Juliana Bittencourt, Maria Ramim, Victor Marinho, Igor Brauns, Isabelle Fernandes, Pedro Ribeiro, Bruna Velasques, Ana Catarina Alves E Silva
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_28_22  
BACKGROUND: Studies indicate that mental practice can be an adjuvant rehabilitation, improving motor functions.AIM: To synthesize the evidence on the intervention with the mental practice for the rehabilitation of the upper limb after stroke in the context of a dependent task. METHODS: The review was registered on the PROSPERO with protocol number: CRD42020166624. We searched the PubMed, Medline, Embase, Central, PEDro, and Web of Science from randomized clinical trials from 1975 to 2022. A literature review was conducted with 13 studies that synthesized findings on mental practice such as adjuvant rehabilitation in the recovery of the upper limb after stroke based on Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) Motor and action research arm test (ARAT) scores. RESULTS: The sample size was 232 were part of the intervention group and 180 of the control group. The findings no showed results in favor of mental practice after stroke accordingly to ARAT and FMA Motor scores (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Current evidence does not support the use of the mental practice to increase the recovery of the upper limb after stroke, although the evidence is conflicting for some aspects of the technique.
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CASE REPORT Top

Isolated axial lateropulsion caused by an acute lateral medullary infarction involving the dorsal spinocerebellar tract: A case report p. 159
Marco Sparaco, Maria Carmela Addonizio, Giancarlo Apice, Giuseppina Cafasso, Amedeo D'Alessio, Gabriella Di Iasi, Carmine Franco Muccio
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_39_22  
Lateral medullary syndrome encompasses a broad spectrum of symptoms and signs depending on the bulbar localization of the lesion. Body lateropulsion (BL) can occur without vestibular and cerebellar symptoms, as a unique manifestation of a lateral medullary infarction. However, it is relatively rare and challenging to diagnose. We report a case of a 72-year-old woman who presented with a tendency to fall to the right. She denied having vertigo, cerebellar signs, sensory loss, or motor weakness. No signs of vestibular dysfunction were found on the ENT examination. Neurological evaluation was unremarkable, except for mild ataxia of the right limbs along with BL to the right side when standing and walking. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed an acute small infarct in the right lateral aspect of the medulla extending from the rostral to the caudal level. MR angiography found no stenosis or vascular occlusions. We believe that ipsilateral axial lateropulsion shown by our patient may be related to a selective ischemic lesion of the dorsal spinocerebellar tract in its medullary course. A lateral medullary infarction should be seriously considered in patients who present with isolated BL without further signs of bulbar involvement.
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COMMENTARY Top

Guillain-Barré syndrome, from the search for Zika to the discovery of asymptomatic campylobacteriosis as a risk factor for neurological syndromes in Veracruz, Mexico p. 163
Luis Del Carpio-Orantes
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_24_22  
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with vaccines in Veracruz, Mexico p. 165
Luis Del Carpio-Orantes, Ishar Solís-Sánchez, Yuri Omar Piquet-Uscanga
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_25_22  
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