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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2016| October-December  | Volume 2 | Issue 4  
    Online since December 6, 2016

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Targeting oxidative stress for the treatment of ischemic stroke: Upstream and downstream therapeutic strategies
Wenjun Li, Shaohua Yang
October-December 2016, 2(4):153-163
DOI:10.4103/2394-8108.195279  PMID:30276293
Excessive oxygen and its chemical derivatives, namely reactive oxygen species (ROS), produce oxidative stress that has been known to lead to cell injury in ischemic stroke. ROS can damage macromolecules such as proteins and lipids and leads to cell autophagy, apoptosis, and necrosis to the cells. This review describes studies on the generation of ROS, its role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke, and recent development in therapeutic strategies in reducing oxidative stress after ischemic stroke.
  64 8,451 4,721
Facial nerve stimulation as a future treatment for ischemic stroke
Mark K Borsody, Emilio Sacristan
October-December 2016, 2(4):164-177
DOI:10.4103/2394-8108.195281  PMID:30276294
Stimulation of the autonomic parasympathetic fibers of the facial nerve system (hereafter simply "facial nerve") rapidly dilates the cerebral arteries and increases cerebral blood flow whether that stimulation is delivered at the facial nerve trunk or at distal points such as the sphenopalatine ganglion. Facial nerve stimulation thus could be used as an emergency treatment of conditions of brain ischemia such as ischemic stroke. A rich history of scientific research has examined this property of the facial nerve, and various means of activating the facial nerve can be employed including noninvasive means. Herein, we review the anatomical and physiological research behind facial nerve stimulation and the facial nerve stimulation devices that are in development for the treatment of ischemic stroke.
  12 13,527 2,923
Endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke: The standard of care
Ashutosh P Jadhav, Tudor G Jovin
October-December 2016, 2(4):178-182
DOI:10.4103/2394-8108.195283  PMID:30276295
Acute ischemic stroke continues to be a major cause of permanent disability and death worldwide. Outcomes are particularly poor in patients presenting with large vessel occlusive disease with resultant ischemia and tissue injury in large and eloquent territories. Intravenous thrombolysis has been the mainstay of medical therapy, however treatment is limited to a subset of patients and many patients continue to have poor outcomes. Three trials in 2013 investigating the benefit of intra-arterial therapy failed to demonstrate benefit over medical therapy alone. More recently, five trials in 2015 were completed demonstrating superior outcomes with intra-arterial therapy with improved results attributed to higher and faster rates of recanalization in a select patient population. These trials have introduced a new standard of care in the management of acute ischemic stroke patients.
  10 4,146 508
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
β4 integrin is not essential for localization of hemidesmosome proteins plectin and CD151 in cerebral vessels
Jennifer V Welser-Alves, Amin Boroujerdi, M Laura Feltri, Richard Milner
October-December 2016, 2(4):189-196
DOI:10.4103/2394-8108.195285  PMID:30276297
Objective: In the central nervous system (CNS), β4 integrin is predominantly expressed by endothelial cells lining arterioles. As β4 integrin plays an essential role in epithelial tissues, organizing structural proteins into specialized adhesive structures called hemidesmosomes (HD), the aim of this study was to determine whether it plays a similar role in CNS endothelium. Methods: Dual-immunofluorescence was used to examine the relationship between β4 integrin expression and co-expression of the HD proteins plectin and CD151 in frozen sections of mouse brain, both under normoxic (control) conditions and following chronic mild hypoxia. The requirement of β4 integrin for the localization of HD proteins was examined in transgenic mice lacking β4 integrin expression specifically in endothelial cells (β4-EC-KO mice). Results: Immunofluorescence revealed that in the normal adult CNS, plectin and CD151 strongly co-localized with β4 integrin in arterioles. However, in the chronic mild hypoxia model, in which extensive cerebrovascular remodeling is observed, plectin and CD151 were strongly upregulated on all cerebral vessels, but surprisingly, in capillaries, this occurred in a β4 integrin-independent manner. Unexpectedly, absence of endothelial β4 integrin (in β4-EC-KO mice) had no impact on the expression level or distribution pattern of plectin and CD151 within stable or remodeling cerebral vessels. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that the HD proteins plectin and CD151 are closely associated with β4 integrin on arterioles in normal brain, and are strongly upregulated on remodeling blood vessels. However, unlike its described role in the epidermis, β4 integrin is not essential for localization or regulation of expression of plectin and CD151 in cerebral vessels.
  2 3,150 254
Region-specific disruption of synapsin phosphorylation following ethanol administration in brain-injured mice
James P Caruso, Laura L Susick, Jennifer L Charlton, Emily L Henson, Alana C Conti
October-December 2016, 2(4):183-188
DOI:10.4103/2394-8108.195284  PMID:30276296
Introduction: Civilians and military personnel develop a range of physical and psychosocial impairments following traumatic brain injury (TBI), including alcohol abuse. As a consequence, increased rates of alcohol misuse magnify TBI-induced pathologies and impede rehabilitation efforts. Therefore, a developed understanding of the mechanisms that foster susceptibility of the injured brain to alcohol sensitivity and the response of the injured brain to alcohol is imperative for the treatment of TBI patients. Alcohol sensitivity has been demonstrated to be increased following experimental TBI and, in additional studies, regulated by presynaptic vesicle release mechanisms, including synapsin phosphorylation. Materials and Methods: Mice were exposed to controlled midline impact of the intact skull and assessed for cortical, hippocampal, and striatal expression of phosphorylated synapsin I and II in response to high-dose ethanol exposure administered 14 days following injury, a time point at which injured mice demonstrate increased sedation after ethanol exposure. Results and Discussion: Immunoblot quantitation revealed that TBI alone, compared to sham controls, significantly increased phosphorylated synapsin I and II protein expression in the striatum. In sham controls, ethanol administration significantly increased phosphorylated synapsin I and II protein expression compared to saline-treated sham controls; however, no significant increase in ethanol-induced phosphorylated synapsin I and II protein expression was observed in the striatum of injured mice compared to saline-treated TBI controls. A similar expression pattern was observed in the cortex although restricted to increases in phosphorylated synapsin II. Conclusion: These data show that increased phosphorylated synapsin expression in the injured striatum may reflect a compensatory neuroplastic response to TBI which is proposed to occur as a result of a compromised presynaptic response of the injured brain to high-dose ethanol. These results offer a mechanistic basis for the altered ethanol sensitivity observed following experimental TBI and contribute to our understanding of alcohol action in the injured brain.
  1 2,990 271