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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2020| April-June  | Volume 6 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 26, 2020

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Involvement of orexinergic system in psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders: A scoping review
Hayder M Al-Kuraishy, May H Abdulhadi, Nawar R Hussien, Marwa S Al-Niemi, Huda A Rasheed, Ali I Al-Gareeb
April-June 2020, 6(2):70-80
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_42_19  
Orexin is a neuropeptide secreted from lateral hypothalamus and pre-frontal cortex concerned in the wakefulness and excitement. This study aimed to review the possible neurobiological effect of orexin. A diversity of search strategies was adopted and assumed which included electronic database searches of Medline and PubMed using MeSH terms, keywords, and title words during the search. Orexin plays a vital role in activation of learning, memory acquisition, and consolidation through activation of monoaminergic system, which affect cognitive flexibility and cognitive function. Orexin stimulates adrenocorticotropin and corticosteroid secretions via activation of central corticotropin-releasing hormone. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum orexin serum levels are reduced in depression, schizophrenia, and narcolepsy. However, high orexin serum levels are revealed in drug addictions. Regarding neurodegenerative brain diseases, CSF and serum orexin serum levels are reduced Parkinson disease, Alzheimer dementia, Huntington's disease, amyotrphic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis. Orexin antagonist leads to significant reduction of sympathetic over-activity during withdrawal syndrome. As well, orexin antagonist improves sleep pattern. Orexinergic system is involved in the different psychiatric and neurological disorders; therefore, targeting of this system could be possible novel pathway in the management of these disorders. In addition, measurement of CSF and serum orexin levels might predict the relapse and withdrawal of addict patients.
  10 22,694 3,075
A promising tool to tackle the risk of cerebral vascular disease, the emergence of novel carotid wall imaging
Mohammad Alkhalil
April-June 2020, 6(2):81-86
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_65_19  
Stroke is a heterogeneous vascular disease. Carotid artery atherosclerosis is associated with almost one-quarter of ischemic strokes. Moreover, a large percentage of preventable strokes are currently attributed to carotid atherosclerosis. Over the past three decades, the management of carotid artery disease has evolved. The benefits of carotid revascularization alongside medical therapy have early been recognized. Nonetheless, the debate regarding the optimal strategy is still ongoing, particularly in patients with asymptomatic carotid artery disease. One of the challenges is the use of luminal stenosis to quantify the severity of the carotid artery disease and to guide decision-making regarding invasive revascularization. Characterizing carotid atherosclerotic plaque is a promising tool to identify vulnerable plaque. Certain features such as large lipid core have already been linked to acute vascular events, not only at the plaque level but also to predict systemic cardiovascular events. Recently, a quantitative T2 mapping magnetic resonance imaging technique was developed and validated against histology. The ability to accurately quantify plaque lipid content using this technique opens several new opportunities. In this review articles, we will discuss the current challenges in the management of carotid artery disease and the future roles of T2 mapping to aid therapeutic options. These roles may include how to determine the mode of invasive carotid revascularization in symptomatic patients. Moreover, there may be a rational to use T2 mapping as a risk stratification tool in asymptomatic patients with carotid artery stenosis. It may also provide an opportunity to stage atherosclerosis and identify patients with coronary atherosclerosis who may benefit maximally from intensive lipid interventions.
  5 18,515 2,092
Pregabalin-associated movement disorders: A literature review
Jamir Pitton Rissardo, Ana Letícia Fornari Caprara
April-June 2020, 6(2):96-106
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_57_19  
Central nervous system adverse effects are commonly reported with pregabalin (PGB). On the other hand, movement disorders (MDs) associated with this drug were rarely described. However, their occurrence could significantly affect the quality of life of PGB users. This literature review aims to evaluate the clinical epidemiological profile, pathological mechanisms, and management of PGB-associated MDs. Relevant reports in six databases were identified and assessed by two reviewers without language restriction. A total of 46 reports containing 305 cases from 17 countries were assessed. The MDs encountered were as follows: 184 individuals with ataxia, 61 with tremors, 39 with myoclonus, 8 with parkinsonism, 1 with restless legs syndrome, 1 with dystonia, 1 with dyskinesia, and 1 with akathisia. The mean age was 62 years (range: 23–94). The male sex was slightly predominant with 54.34%. The mean PGB dose when the MD occurred was 238 mg, and neuropathic pain was the most common indication of PGB. The time from PGB start to MD was < 1 month at 75%. The time from PGB withdrawal to recovery was < 1 week at 77%. All the individuals where the follow-up was reported had a full recovery. The most common management was PGB withdrawal. In the literature, the majority of the cases did not report information about timeline events, neurological examination details, or electrodiagnostic studies. The best management for all MDs is probably PGB withdrawal. If the patient is on dialysis program, perhaps an increased number of sessions will decrease recovery time. Furthermore, the addition of a benzodiazepine could accelerate recovery.
  5 21,369 2,653
Updates on the association of brain injury and Alzheimer's disease
Kara Klomparens, Yuchuan Ding
April-June 2020, 6(2):65-69
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_18_20  
The purpose of this minireview is to outline the updates made on the association of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and brain injury. A review of the literature on this subject was conducted that included various aspects such as age of onset, severity of head trauma, and genetic influences. The results of this mini-review were that consistent associations of AD risk are seen when the severity of head trauma increases, the lag time decreases and when genetic links are present. Brain injury and AD have a complicated relationship that requires further studies to be fully understood.
  4 20,104 2,508
CASE REPORTS
Dyke–Davidoff–Masson syndrome presenting as recurrent chronic headache in the late adult life
Wafa Ali Aldhaleei, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Fatema Alshehhi
April-June 2020, 6(2):123-125
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_45_19  
Dyke–Davidoff–Masson syndrome (DDMS) (also referred to as cerebral hemiatrophy) is a rare condition characterized by seizures, facial asymmetry, contralateral spastic hemiplegia, or hemiparesis, with or without learning difficulties. It usually presents in the early childhood or late adolescence. The diagnosis is mainly associated with the presence of radiologic findings which include contralateral cerebral hemiatrophy with ipsilateral dilatation of the lateral ventricle and hypertrophy of the sinuses. Here, we report a case of a 49-year-old female patient who presented with chronic headache episodes for 10 years, and radiological findings revealed the DDMS.
  2 1,702 195
A case of recurrent stroke with underlying adenocarcinoma: Pseudo-cryptogenic stroke
Deepak Goel, Vikram Sharma, Madasu Mukhiya Pran, Rekha Gupta, Tulika Keshri, Uttam Shettigar
April-June 2020, 6(2):126-129
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_49_19  
Stroke is the most common neurological disorders leading to early death. Early recognition of underlying mechanisms and etiology of stroke is important to prevent recurrence, mortality and disability. The term cryptogenic stroke or embolic stroke of undetermined sources is used where no etiology could be detected. We are describing this rare case of “recurrent stroke with undetermined etiology” finally proved to have an uncommon underlying etiology.
  1 1,748 230
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Regional leptomeningeal collateral score by computed tomographic angiography correlates with 3-month clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke
D Chatterjee, K Nagarajan, Sunil K Narayan, R Lakshmi Narasimhan
April-June 2020, 6(2):107-115
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_55_19  
PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to assess the correlation between regional leptomeningeal collateral (rLMC) Scores calculated on computed tomography (CT) angiography following acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke, with 3-month clinical outcome measured as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Barthel Index (BI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of thirty patients were studied as per the exclusion and inclusion criteria and after informed consent. Multi-phase CT angiography was carried out within 24 h of stroke onset, and collateral scoring was done using rLMC score along with Alberta stroke programme early CT (ASPECT) scoring. At 3 months, patients were followed up to evaluate the clinical outcome using mRS and BI. Statistical analysis was performed to find out the correlation between rLMC score, ASPECT score, and clinical outcome and for association with demographic parameters and stroke risk factors. RESULTS: A strong correlation was noted between ASPECT and rLMC scores (P < 0.001) and between rLMC scores and clinical outcome at 3 months (mRS and BI). Correlation with mRS (P < 0.001) was nearly as strong as that of BI on follow-up (P < 0.001). The ASPECT score also was a predictor of clinical outcome and showed correlation with mRS (P < 0.001) and BI (P < 0.001). No significant association was found between various stroke risk factors and demographic parameters with rLMC scores. The rLMC scoring system showed substantial inter-rater reliability with Kappa = 0.7. CONCLUSIONS: rLMC score in CT angiography correlates with ASPECT Score and clinical outcome at 3 months. Hence, this scoring system can be used for collateral quantification as may be of use in predicting short-term clinical outcomes.
  1 38,850 5,036
Ruptured Fisher grade 3 blister aneurysms have a higher incidence of delayed cerebral ischemia than ruptured Fisher grade 3 saccular aneurysms
Tejas Karnati, Tamar R Binyamin, Brian C Dahlin, Ben Waldau
April-June 2020, 6(2):116-122
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_63_19  
BACKGROUND: Blister aneurysms are a rare subclass of aneurysms, which remain challenging to treat both with open cerebrovascular and endovascular techniques, and clinicians continue to see poor outcomes in some cases despite improvements in technology. Based on our clinical observations, we hypothesized that patients with a Fisher grade 3 subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a ruptured anterior circulation blister aneurysm are significantly more likely to develop poor outcome due to delayed cerebral ischemia than patients with a Fisher grade 3 SAH from a ruptured anterior circulation saccular aneurysm. METHODS: In this consecutive case series, we reviewed management, outcomes, and rates of delayed cerebral ischemia for all ruptured anterior circulation blister aneurysms from 2012 to 2018 at our institution and compared them to a concurrent cohort of ruptured saccular anterior circulation aneurysms. A blister aneurysm was defined as an aneurysm that arises from a nonbranching point and demonstrates hemispherical anatomy on diagnostic angiography. RESULTS: We identified 14 consecutive ruptured anterior circulation blister aneurysms. Thirteen aneurysms were treated operatively– 5 with clip remodeling and 8 with flow diversion embolization. While clip remodeling had a high intraoperative rupture rate (80%), there was only one (12.5%) intraoperative rupture with flow diversion embolization. Outcomes were worsened by delayed cerebral ischemia from vasospasm in patients with Fisher 3 hemorrhages from blister aneurysms (86%). The rate of delayed cerebral ischemia from vasospasm was significantly higher for ruptured blister aneurysms than for a concurrent cohort of ruptured saccular aneurysms (8.6%,P = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Ruptured Fisher grade 3 anterior circulation blister aneurysms have a significantly higher incidence of delayed cerebral ischemia from vasospasm compared to saccular aneurysms, regardless of the treatment modality.
  1 34,428 4,996
REVIEW ARTICLES
Multiple flow-related intracranial aneurysms in the setting of contralateral carotid occlusion: Coincidence or association?
Cassidy Werner, Mansour Mathkour, Tyler Scullen, Erin Mccormack, Aaron S Dumont, Peter S Amenta
April-June 2020, 6(2):87-95
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_1_20  
The prevalence of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is higher in patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis, likely due to alterations in intracranial hemodynamics. Severe stenosis or occlusion of one ICA may result in increased demand and altered hemodynamics in the contralateral ICA, thus increasing the risk of contralateral IA formation. In this article, we discuss a relevant case and a comprehensive literature review as it pertains to the association of ICA stenosis and IA. Our patient was a 50-year-old female with a chronic asymptomatic right ICA occlusion who presented with diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Emergent angiography revealed left-sided A1-A2 junction, paraclinoid, left middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation, and left anterior temporal artery aneurysms. Brisk filling of the right anterior circulation through the anterior communicating artery was also identified, signifying increased demand on the left ICA circulation. Complete obliteration of all aneurysms was achieved with coil embolization and clipping. For our literature review, we searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases for case reports and case series, as well as references in previously published review articles that described patients with concurrent aneurysms and ICA stenosis. We selected articles that provided adequate information about the case presentations to compare aneurysm and patient characteristics. Our review revealed a higher number of patients with multiple aneurysms contralateral (25%) to rather than ipsilateral to (6%), the ICA stenosis. We discuss the pathogenesis and management of multiple flow-related IA in the context of the existing literature related to concurrent ICA stenosis and IA.
  1 15,322 1,775
CASE REPORTS
Treatment of acute thrombosis during stent-assisted coil embolization of ruptured proximal posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm
Guangwen Li, Tonghui Liu, Naidong Wang, Yong Zhang
April-June 2020, 6(2):130-132
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_51_19  
Aneurysms located in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) are not a majority of the intracranial aneurysms cases. Many challenges were addressed in the endovascular procedure to treat the disease. The authors have successfully diagnosed and treated a ruptured proximal PICA aneurysm. However, digital subtraction angiography showed acute thrombosis in the vertebral artery in the procedure, which probably could be an acute in-stent thrombosis. The tirofiban hydrochloride injection was subjected through a microcatheter, and then, the second Neuroform EZ stent was planted. In the 6-month follow-up, no recurrence of the aneurysm and complete patency of the right PICA at the site of aneurysm formation were found. We believe that the treatment of PICA aneurysms with Neuroform EZ stents could get a favorable result. Combination of tirofiban hydrochloride and Neuroform EZ stent could be an effective approach in treating acute thrombotic complications.
  - 1,813 194
Internal carotid artery origin of the anterior cerebral artery: A rare anatomic intracranial arterial variation in a child with morning glory disc anomaly and moyamoya vascular pattern; case report and review of literature
Aikaterini Solomou, Kanellos C Spiliopoulos, Georgios Vasilagkos, Athanasios Vagionis, Petros Zampakis
April-June 2020, 6(2):133-138
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_10_20  
Morning glory disc anomaly (MGDA) characterizes a congenital dysgenetic disorder of the optic disc, coexisting with arterial intracranial abnormalities, including Moyamoya vascular disease, a significantly rare disease in the European populations. We report a 2.5-year-old female child from Greece previously diagnosed with MGDA, who presented with right-hand paresis, accompanied by focal epileptic spasms, followed by an episode of brief absence seizure, as well as some arm clonic spasms. Magnetic resonance angiography scan revealed the presence of an anomalous origin of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) from the internal carotid artery (ICA) along with vascular abnormalities, compatible with Moyamoya pattern. To the very best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of anomalous origin of ACA from the supraclinoid ICA accompanied by severe occlusive intracranial disease (moyamoya-like pattern) in a patient with known MGDA, highlighting the embryonic character of the vascular manifestations in MGDA. It also verifies the association of Moyamoya pattern with MGDA, thus linking vascular dysgenesis as a possible cause of MGDA.
  - 2,409 236