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   2021| January-March  | Volume 7 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 30, 2021

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Cell-based treatment for perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
You Jeong Park, Cesario V Borlongan, Mari Dezawa
January-March 2021, 7(1):13-17
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_7_21  
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of acute neonatal brain injury and can lead to disabling long-term neurological complications. Treatment for HIE is limited to supportive care and hypothermia within 6 h injury which is reserved for full-term infants. Preclinical studies suggest the potential for cell-based therapies as effective treatments for HIE. Some clinical trials using umbilical cord blood cells, placenta-derived stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and others have yielded promising results though more studies are needed to optimize protocols and multi-center trials are needed to prove safety and efficacy. To date, the therapeutic effects of most cell-based therapies are hypothesized to stem from the bystander effect of donor cells. Transplantation of stem cells attenuate the aberrant inflammation cascade following HIE and provide a more ideal environment for endogenous neurogenesis and repair. Recently, a subset of MSCs, the multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells have shown to treat HIE and other models of neurologic diseases by replacing dead or ischemic cells and have reached clinical trials. In this review, we examine the different cell sources used in clinical trials and evaluate the underlying mechanism behind their therapeutic effects. Three databases–PubMed, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov–were used to review preclinical and clinical experimental treatments for HIE.
  2,364 243 1
Vascular tortuosity in endovascular mechanical thrombectomy
Jeffrey Farooq, Jea Young Lee
January-March 2021, 7(1):3-7
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_5_21  
Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy effectively removes occlusive thrombi from the arterial lumen; however, there is little literature supporting the relevance of vascular geometry on surgical outcomes. Critical vessel characteristics including the degree of angulation and tortuosity influence the ability to advance stent retriever devices toward the site of occlusion. Therefore, it is crucial to evaluate the impact of carotid artery catheter pathway accessibility on the thrombectomy outcomes in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Traditional imaging modalities generate incomplete pictures of the vascular tortuosity and are prone to clinical judgment errors. Recent three-dimensional computed tomography angiography image analysis techniques circumvent these limitations to calculate accurate tortuosity and angulation measurements. These novel images facilitate classifying common anatomical variant patients into groups that may be treated with specially designed catheter devices. Importantly, this image analysis method reveals significant angulation in the common carotid artery and extracranial internal carotid artery that correlates with delays in reaching the occlusion site. Increased age, which is associated with increased risk of stroke, also increases the incidence of severe tortuosity. The semi-automated measurements technique also demonstrate that full 360° arterial loops are present in nearly 3% of catheter pathways and that the overall degree of angulation differs bilaterally. In this review, we examine the utility of this novel image analysis procedure and evaluate the recent literature relevant to neuroendovascular thrombectomy in AIS patients. Three literature databases – PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were queried for original articles investigating both preclinical and clinical thrombectomy applications.
  1,199 236 -
An Examination of mobile spinal cord stimulators on treating Parkinson disease
Zhen-Jie Wang, Takao Yasuhara
January-March 2021, 7(1):8-12
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_6_21  
In animal models of Parkinson disease (PD), spinal cord stimulation (SCS) exhibits neuroprotective effects. Recent advancements in SCS technology, most importantly mobile stimulators, allow for the conventional limitations of SCS such as limited stimulation time and restricted animal movements to be bypassed, offering potential avenues for improved clinical translation to PD patients. Small devices that could deliver continuous SCS to freely moving parkinsonian rats were shown to significantly improve behavior, preserve neurons and fibers in the substantia Nigra/striatum, reduce microglia infiltration, and increase laminin-positive area of the cerebral cortex. Through possible anti-inflammatory and angiogenic mechanisms, it has been demonstrated that there are behavioral and histological benefits to continuous SCS in a time-dependent manner. This review will discuss the benefits of this technology as well as focus on the limitations of current animal models.
  1,120 210 -
Extracellular vesicle-based therapy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Nadia Sadanandan, Jea-Young Lee, Svitlana Garbuzova-Davis
January-March 2021, 7(1):23-28
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_9_21  
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) stands as a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the rapid progression of motor neuron loss in the brain and spinal cord. Unfortunately, treatment options for ALS are limited, and therefore, novel therapies that prevent further motor neuron degeneration are of dire need. In ALS, the infiltration of pathological elements from the blood to the central nervous system (CNS) compartment that spur motor neuron damage may be prevented via restoration of the impaired blood-CNS-barrier. Transplantation of human bone marrow endothelial progenitor cells (hBM-EPCs) demonstrated therapeutic promise in a mouse model of ALS due to their capacity to mitigate the altered blood-CNS-barrier by restoring endothelial cell (EC) integrity. Remarkably, the hBM-EPCs can release angiogenic factors that endogenously ameliorate impaired ECs. In addition, these cells may produce extracellular vesicles (EVs) that carry a wide range of vesicular factors, which aid in alleviating EC damage. In an in vitro study, hBM-EPC-derived EVs were effectively uptaken by the mouse brain endothelial cells (mBECs) and cell damage was significantly attenuated. Interestingly, the incorporation of EVs into mBECs was inhibited via β1 integrin hindrance. This review explores preclinical studies of the therapeutic potential of hBM-EPCs, specifically via hBM-EPC-derived EVs, for the repair of the damaged blood-CNS-barrier in ALS as a novel treatment approach.
  1,058 225 -
Mitochondrial activity of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells
Blaise M Cozene, Eleonora Russo, Rita Anzalone, Giampiero La Rocca, Cesario V Borlongan
January-March 2021, 7(1):33-36
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_15_21  
Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) serve as a potential cell-based therapy for degenerative disease. They provide immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, multipotent differentiation potential and are harvested with no ethical concern. It is unknown whether MSCs collected from different areas of the human umbilical cord elicit more favorable effects than others. Three MSC populations were harvested from various regions of the human umbilical cord: cord lining (CL-MSCs), perivascular region (PV-MSCs), and Wharton's jelly (WJ-MSCs). Mesenchymal markers (CD90 and CD73) were expressed by all three cell populations. Stemness marker (OCT4), endothelial cell adhesion molecular marker (CD146), and monocyte-macrophage marker (CD14) were expressed by WJ-MSCs, PV-MSCs, and CL-MSCs, respectively. Stroke presents with oxygen and glucose deprivation and leads to dysfunctional mitochondria and consequently cell death. Targeting the restoration of mitochondrial function in the stroke brain through mitochondrial transfer may be effective in treating stroke. In vitro exposure to ambient and OGD conditions resulted in CL-MSCs number decreasing the least post-OGD/R exposure, and PV-MSCs exhibiting the greatest mitochondrial activity. All three hUC-MSC populations presented similar metabolic activity and survival in normal and pathologic environments. These characteristics indicate hUC-MSCs potential as a potent therapeutic in regenerative medicine.
  1,014 234 1
Exendin-4 for Parkinson's disease
Felipe de Jesús Esparza-Salazar, Alma Rosa Lezama-Toledo, Germán Rivera-Monroy, Cesario V Borlongan
January-March 2021, 7(1):41-43
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_21_21  
This review article discusses the preclinical evidence and clinical trials testing the use of a peptide agonist of the glucagon-like peptide (GLP) receptor that promotes insulin secretion in the animal models of and patient with Parkinson's disease (PD). In particular, we focus on the therapeutic effects of the GLP receptor agonist exendin-4, also called exenatide, in PD. The ultimate goal of this article is to provide a critical assessment of the laboratory and clinical data toward guiding the translation of exendin-4 as a clinically relevant therapeutic for PD.
  1,002 184 -
EDITORIAL
Regenerative medicine during the pandemic period
Cesario V Borlongan
January-March 2021, 7(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_22_21  
  1,056 126 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Stem cell secretome derived from human amniotic fluid affords neuroprotection in an ischemic model
Chase Kingsbury, Liborio Stuppia
January-March 2021, 7(1):18-22
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_8_21  
Human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) are growing in interest; yet, little is understood about their secretome and neuroprotective actions in different diseases, including stroke. When stem cells are grown in vitro, they release an array of cytokines and growth factors that can stimulate neuroprotective processes. Furthermore, administering secretome rather than cells may be a safer route for patients who are at risk for rejection, promoting innate restorative processes. Current literature implicates that the miRNA contents of such secretome, more specifically exosomes, may regulate the effectiveness of secretome administration. In this review, we explore what factors may promote pro-survival and pro-apoptotic pathways after the administration of hAFSCs-derived secretome in ischemic models.
  896 154 -
Major histocompatibility complex Class II-based therapy for stroke
Bella M Gonzales-Portillo, Jea-Young Lee, Arthur A Vandenbark, Halina Offner, Cesario V Borlongan
January-March 2021, 7(1):37-40
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_16_21  
This review discusses the potential of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II constructs as stroke therapeutics. We focus on the delivery of MHC Class II construct, DRmQ, as a safe and effective treatment for ischemic stroke. DRmQ was observed to attenuate behavioral deficits and decrease microglia activation and proinflammatory cytokines, illustrating its ability to mitigate the secondary cell death following stroke. Similar anti-neuroinflammation treatments, such as transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells and mitochondrial transfers, are briefly discussed to provide further support that sequestration of inflammation stands as a robust therapeutic target for stroke.
  840 129 -
Bone marrow-derived NCS-01 cells for ischemic stroke
Madeline Saft, Minako Koga, Cesario V Borlongan
January-March 2021, 7(1):44-47
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_23_21  
Stroke stands as one of the most common causes of death among adults worldwide. Currently, tissue plasminogen activator serves as the only approved drug by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Stem cell therapy serves as a viable treatment option and has been deemed as a safe and effective treatment for stroke patients. Adult human bone marrow-derived NCS-01 cells serve as a potential treatment for stroke given their ability to reduce stroke-induced pathological deficits by increasing cell viability and mitochondrial activity. Recently, we demonstrated the use of adult bone marrow-derived NCS-01 cells both on both in vitro and in vivo models. Using NCS-01 cells in rat stroke models subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion, an effective dosage of 7.5 × 106 cells/ml, administered through the intracarotid artery within 3 days poststroke, was shown to display significant improvements in motor and neurological behaviors, reductions in infarct area, and peri-infarct cell loss. NCS-01 cells, in comparison with other lines of stem cells (Li cells), are shown to produce greater therapeutic effects, most likely due to the observed filopodia formation that allows the stem cells to extend and target the ischemic cells. Given these findings, NCS-01 stem cells serve as a potential treatment for stroke through the demonstration of profound efficacy and further research that favors their filopodia-mediated mechanism of action.
  578 100 -
The unsolved mystery of hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide: A potent cholinergic regulator
Justin Y Cho, Noriyuki Matsukawa
January-March 2021, 7(1):29-32
DOI:10.4103/bc.bc_14_21  
This review discusses the potential of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II constructs as stroke therapeutics. We focus on the delivery of MHC Class II construct, DRmQ, as a safe and effective treatment for ischemic stroke. DRmQ was observed to attenuate behavioral deficits and decrease microglia activation and proinflammatory cytokines, illustrating its ability to mitigate the secondary cell death following stroke. Similar anti-neuroinflammation treatments, such as transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells and mitochondrial transfers, are briefly discussed to provide further support that sequestration of inflammation stands as a robust therapeutic target for stroke.
  524 93 -